to be done
to have done
to have been done
to be doing
to have been doing
完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作, 在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式.
I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother).
(比较: I am glad to see you.)
He is said to have written a new book about workers.
He pretended not to have seen me.
进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用不定式的进行式.
You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet.
We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here.
He pretended to be listening attentively.
完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式.
The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.
We are happy to have been working with you.
被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式.
It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.
She hated to be flattered.
He wanted the letter to be typed at once.
This is bound to be found out.
There are a lot of things to be done.
She was too young to be assigned such work.
功用: 不定式可以作主语 (a), 宾语 (b), 表语 (c), 定语 (d) 或是状语 (e).
a. To scold her would not be just.
b. We are planning to build a reservoir here.
c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture.
d. Do you have anything to declare?
e. We have come to learn from you.
在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice等, 或是表示“致使”意义的 have, make, let等, 其后的不定式结构不带to.
John made her tell him everything.
这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带to 的不定式一般还原为带to 的不定式.
She was made to tell him everything.
在 had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带to.
I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.
They cannot but accept his term.
在make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of等固定搭配中, 用不带to的动词不定式.
John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.
I’ve heard tell of him.
在动词help(或help +宾语)之后可用不带to的不定式, 也可用带to的不定式.
Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?
在介词except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词do的某种形式, 不定式一般不带to, 反之带to.
There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining.
Smith will do anything but work on a farm.
There’s no choice but to wait till it stops raining.
连词 rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带to.
Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to pick it up.
出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带to, 有时不带to.
He decided to write rather than telephone.
The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages.
用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”，“thing +关系分句”，“what分句”或“thing +不定式结构”等构成，并带有do的某种形式，这时，作为主语补语的不定式可以省to，也可以不省.
What he will do is (to) spoil the whole thing.
All you do now is complete the form
The only thing I can do now is go on by myself.
The thing to do now is clear up this mess.
The least I can do is drive everybody else closer to the issue.
She was too young to understand all that.
She was not old enough to understand all that.
not too, but too, all too, only too等和不定式连用时,不定式一般不表示否定意义:
He’s only too pleased to help her.
Be so kind as to drop in some time when you are free.
It is not hard for one to do a bit of good.
It is a great honour for us to be present at this rally.
在以某些形容词(如 kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude, naughty, impolite等)作表语时, 不定式前可加一个of引起的短语, 来说明不定式指的是谁的情况:
It’s kind of you to think so much of us.
(It is) Awfully good of you to come and meet us.
It’s very nice of you to be so considerate.
It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal.
完成式: 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生, 通常用动名词的完成形式.
He didn’t mention having met me.
I regret not having taken her advice.
在某些动词后(或成语中), 常用(或可以用)动名词的一般形式, 尽管动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的.
Excuse me for coming late.
I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere.
Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.
Having found the cause, they were able to propose a remedy.
The guests having left, they resumed their discussion.
The children, having eating their fill, were allowed to leave the table.
被动式: 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形式.
His being neglected by the host added to his uneasiness.
He couldn’t bear being made fun of like that.
但要注意, 在want, need, deserve, require 等动词后, 尽管表示的是被动的意思, 却用动名词的主动形式.
My pen needs filling.
The point deserves mentioning.
This problem requires studying with great care.
Her method is worth trying.
现在分词的被动式可以用来作定语, 宾语补足语, 状语及用于独立结构中.
This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory.
You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere.
Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse.
These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to the customers.
完成被动式: 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生, 有时需要用动名词的完成被动式.
I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.
但在多数情况下都避免使用这一形式, 而用一般被动形式代替, 以免句子显得累赘.
Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?
The decision having been made, the next problem was how to make a good plan.
All the compositions having been written and collected, the teacher sent the students home.
Walking is good exercise.
It’s nice talking to you.
There is no denying the fact that the new method has greatly raised labour productivity.
Your shoes need polishing.
You mustn’t delay sending the tractors over.
He avoided giving us a definite answer.
作介词宾语: 动名词作介词宾语用的时候最多. 它常可以用在某些成语后面, 常见的有: insist on, persist in, think of, dream of, object to, suspect…of, accuse…of, charge…with, hear of, approve of, prevent…from, keep…from, stop…from, refrain from, be engaged in, look forward to, opposed to, depend on, thank…for, feel like, excuse…for, aim at, devote…to, set about, spend…in, get (be) used to, be fond of, be capable of, be afraid of, be tired of, be sick of, succeed in, be interested in, feel (be) ashamed of, be proud of, be keen on, be responsible for.
The real problem is getting to know the needs of the people.
动名词和不定式都可以作主语或表语. 一般说来, 在表示抽象的一般的行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某词动作, 特别是将来的动作时, 多用不定式.
作宾语补足语: 分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, find, keep, get, have等动词后作宾语补足语.
The words immediately set us all laughing.
Once we caught him dozing off in class.
His remark left me wondering what he was driving at.
在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等动词后, 及可用现在分词, 也可用不定式构成宾语补足语. 用现在分词时, 表示动作正在发生, 用不定式时表示动作发生了.
Do you hear someone knocking at the door?
Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times.
作状语: 现在分词作状语时, 通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作, 来对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬.
I ran out of the house shouting.
I got home, feeling very tired.
Driving to Chicago that night, I was struck by a sudden thought.
Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note.
Having already seen the film twice, she didn’t want to go to the cinema.
Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together.
如果两个动作是完全同时发生的, 多用when 或while加分词这种结构.
Be careful when crossing the street.
When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.
She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing.
前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构: 一个动名词前面可以加一个物主代词(或名词的所有格结构), 来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语.
Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.
Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself.
Do you mind my reading your paper?
They insisted on my staying there for supper.
如果不是在句子开头, 这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格), 这比用所有格更自然一些.
I don’t mind him going.
She hates people losing their temper.
只能用动名词作宾语的动词: suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, admit, enjoy, leave off, require, postpone, put off, delay, practise, fancy, excuse, pardon, advise, consider, deny, endure, escape, miss
既可用动名词, 也可用不定式作宾语的动词: love, like, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, intend, attempt, can’t bear, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret, neglect, try, deserve, can’t afford等.
有时两种结构之间意义差别不大, 有时却有不同的意思. 在remember, regret, want, try等词后差别是比较明显的.
I remember seeing her once somewhere.
I must remember to take my notebooks with me.
I regret not having accepted your advice.
I regret to say I haven’t given you enough help.
She doesn’t want (need) to come.
The house wants (needs) cleaning.
We must try to get everything done in time.
Let’s try doing the work some other way.
悬垂修饰: 分词作状语时, 表示的必须是主语的一个动作或状态.
Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (walking是we的动作, 正确)
Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (错误)
Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (正确)
Standing on the tower, the whole village could be seen. (错误)
意义: 过去分词通常来自及物动词, 带有被动意义和完成意义; 而现在分词有的来自及物动词, 有的来自不及物动词, 通常带有主动意义和未完成意义.
frozen food a freezing wind
a bored traveller a boring journey
a lost cause a losing battle
a conquered army a conquering army
a finished article the last finishing touch
the spoken word a speaking bird
a closed shop the closing hour
a recorded talk a recording machine
来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.
the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors
Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.
作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队, canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区
分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复, highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品, man-made satellite人造卫星
see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.
I saw the students assembled in the hall.
We found her greatly changed.
make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:
I have my hair cut every ten days.
She got her bad tooth pulled out.
Please keep us informed of the latest developments.
like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:
I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.
He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.
过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.
Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,
Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.
Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.
This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production.
Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.
Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years.
独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构, 一般表示一种伴随的动作或情况.
He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.
Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his institute.
Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter.
All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.